Monday, July 5, 2010

In Guidelines: Culture of L. vannamei in Autotrophic System


Pond Preparation
Each type of farm has different stages with each other. To reduce the risks and constraints to disease at the time of culture period, preparation must be done as carefully as possible.  For ponds with full HDPE, pond preparation includes cleaning the pond bottom and walls of the rest of the dirt (mud, tritip, shellfish and others), cleaning and repair of plastic and Paddle Wheel Aerator (PWA), and sterilization using chlorine at the bottom of the pond and in the pipe.
Water Filling
Water filling activities started from entering the water from the main inlet into the quarantine pond, supply canal, and culture pond. In the process of water filling all the pipes should be installed triple filter (300 mikron, 1 mm, and 3 mm). This is done to prevent the entry of carriers that can cause disease.
Water Preparation
Water preparation is a series of activities undertaken to prepare for proper water use in the culture process. Series of these activities include sterilization, water color forming, and measuring water quality. In the process of water forming, nutrient availability both in terms of quantity and type are very important. Establishment of good water will ensure adequate food availability and water quality in ponds, so the shrimp can grow well.
Ponds with an area of 0.5 ha, the materials normally required for the water forming is 3 kg of urea, phosphate 1 kg, and 6 packets of fermentation (50 kg of SBM, 10 kg of RB, and 2.5 kg of molasses). Fermentation package stocked into the pond once every 3 days until the color of the water formed. The recommended water quality standard before stocking is as follows:
Parameter
Standard (Value/ Condition)
Water color
Brownish to Green
Transparency
40-30 cm
Alkalinity
> 80 ppm
Salinity
20-30 ppt
pH
7.5-8.5
Phytoplankton
> 104

To ensure that the pond water is really ready, do bioassay. If there is mortality in bioassays, fry stocking done delays.

Fry Stocking
Before stocked, fry should be checked to ensure quality. If SR on stress test less than 95%, fries are not worthy to be stocked and should be returned or destroyed. Acclimatization process must be done to avoid stress due to decreased DO, temperature rise, and changes to other water parameters. When the salinity difference between the media and the pond water is not more than 5 ppt, the fry can be stocked directly.
As for the recommended fry quality standards are as follows:
Parameter
Standard (Value/ Condition)
PL
10-15 days
Length
>= 8.1 mm
Size Variation
< 0.8
DO
>= 14 ppm
Temperature
22-240C
TAN
< 0.1
pH
7.4-7.9

Culture Process
Things to note on the culture process is feeding management and water quality management. In the first month, fries are very dependent on natural food, but for intensive culture systems, natural food available is not enough. Therefore, the first month feeding program assumes that natural food is not enough. SR estimates until DOC (day of culture) 30 is 93%.
After the first month, feeding on the next month following the feed trays control. For the pond with an area of 0.5 ha, the recommended amount of feed trays is 3-4 units. Addition and reduction in feed made in accordance with the results obtained in the feed trays. If the feed on feed trays expires, the feed for the next day can be added up to 5% of the feed today. However, if the feed in feed trays not exhausted, the feed for the next day can be cut to 40%.
During the culture process with a closed system, water is used that has been sterilized with crustacide. If the calculated, total amount of water needed to water exchange for 1 cycle per pond is 17,500 m3. Water exchange program in detail are as follows: The first month, the percentage of water exchange by 5%. In the second month, the percentage of water exchange by 20%. For the third month, percentage of water exchange by 30%. While for the fourth month, the percentage of water exchange by 50%. Whereas for the desired water quality parameters are as follows:
Parameter
Range
Salinity
20-30 ppt
Transparency
40-30 cm
pH - AM
7.5-7.95
pH - PM
8.0-8.5
DO
>4 ppm
Alkalinity
>80 ppm
NH3
<0.05 ppm

Pond Bottom Management
Pond bottom management is very important because most of the shrimp activities performed in the pond bottom. Pond bottom is a feeding area which is also where the accumulation of dirt as a result of the culture process. Keeping the pond bottom clean will indirectly protect water quality and shrimp health. It should be noted in the pond bottom management is setting PWA, siphoning and treatment of bacterial decomposition.

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