Biosecurity in shrimp farming is a series of activities designed to deter the entry of disease into the farming system and prevent the spread of disease from an infected farm. Failure of the implementation of biosecurity programs are at risk of disease spread within the culture as well as in environmental waters due to crop failure and subsequent decline in production.
In detail the purpose of biosecurity are: (1) prevent entry of diseases from outside through the water, animals, people and equipment, (2) prevent the spread of the disease were found from one pond to another pond, (3) prevent the spread of disease from the pond into the environment , (4) prevent infectious diseases from one cycle to the next cycle.
Generally, the stages of biosecurity are applied in ponds with superintensif culture is biosecurity in the pond preparation, biosecurity in the culture period, and biosecurity at the time of harvest. Biosecurity in the preparation phase includes the installation of bird scaring devices (BSD), installation of crab protection device (CPD), installation of water filters on all intake pipes, disinfection of pond bottom, and disinfection of water.
Bird scaring device installation aims to banish the birds so as not to enter the pond area. Birds that enter the pond area is feared to bring the disease from outside. Crab protection device is a tool to prevent entry of crabs into the pond area. While the water filter was installed to prevent entry of carries, predators, and other animals into the farming system.
Disinfection pond bottom is an activity to reduce the number of pathogenic microorganisms that is in the culture system derived from the previous cycle until the level is not dangerous. Disinfection of water is an activity that aims to kill carries in the water used for culture.
Biosecurity in the culture period include maintenance of CPD and BSD, sanitation to people and equipment, isolation of pond which infected of diseases, and collection of diseased shrimp. Maintenance of CPD and BSD done to ensure that condition of CPD and BSD remain good and effective as a biosecurity tool until the end of culture. Sanitation to people aiming to prevent the entry of diseases caused by human factors. How that is done is to wash hands using antiseptic soap after each feeding and check the feed trays and always dipped the shoes into a solution of potassium before and after entry into the pond.
Sanitation of equipment to prevent the spread of disease from one pond to another pond through the equipment. Make sure that the equipment used in the ponds was sterile equipment. Before being used for other farms, the equipment must be sterilized by immersion in disinfectant solution.
Isolation of pond which infected of disease is needed if there is one or several ponds infected but not yet harvested. How that is done is to elevate the water in the supply canal and beside ponds. Also refrain from weekly sampling, until conditions return to normal. Diseased shrimp collection aims to isolate it so that the disease does not infect the shrimp are still healthy. After the diseased shrimp collected, immediately destroy the way of buried or burned.
After the completion of harvest, the remaining shrimp in ponds and are scattered around the harvest should be gathered and destroyed. This is to prevent the shrimp carcasses are not carried by other animals like birds or cats that are at risk of spreading the disease elsewhere.